This is a Content Analysis Paper, final draft.
This project involves collecting your own data and recording it on your own data chart, analyzing and
interpreting your data, and discussing the results of your study. The draft for the paper is due via the link
on Canvas by 11:59pm on Friday, October 29, and the final paper is due via the link on Canvas by
11:59pm on Friday, December 3. No exceptions. Failure to submit the paper on time will result in a grade
of 0. I will not accept any papers emailed to me.
The Paper: This paper will include five sections. Each of the sections in the body of the paper (see
sections marked by Roman numerals below) must be labeled clearly. You can use bold font and/or you
can underline their names. All information and facts must be cited properly using ASA format.
Cover Page: You must have a cover page, which should include: Your name, Instructor’s name, Name
and semester of class, Title of study, and Date submitted. This page does not count towards the page
length requirement for the paper. This page is worth 5 points.
I. Introduction: The first section of the paper includes information about your topic of study. For
instance, if you choose to study racism, you will discuss racism in the US today. This can include the
state of race relations, racialized hate crimes, racism in the media, and so on. This section will be a
paragraph or two that introduce your topic and explain its importance in society. YOU WILL INCLUDE
FACTS IN THIS SECTION AND YOU MUST CITE THEM IN ASA FORMAT! This section should be 1-1.5 pages
(double-spaced) long, and is worth 10 points.
II. Research Question and Hypothesis: In this section, you will state the question that you are
investigating, followed by its hypothesis. For instance, if you are interested in examining sexism in
popular magazines, your research questions might be:
Research Question 1: Do magazines targeting female readers and magazines targeting male readers
differ in terms of topics of articles?
Hypothesis 1: It is hypothesized that magazines targeting female readers will have more articles
discussing beauty, sex, clothing, and housekeeping, as compared to magazines targeting male readers.
Research Question 2: Do magazines targeting female readers and magazines targeting male readers
differ in terms of topics of appearance and career of cover model?
Hypothesis 2: It is hypothesized that the models on the covers of magazines targeting female readers
will be dressed and posed in a more sexy fashion, and they will be more likely to be entertainers or
models instead of businesspersons or politicians, as compared to magazines targeting male readers.
The research question(s) should appear in the exact format as the example questions above.
You should have only one or two research questions, each with just one corresponding hypothesis (as
you see in the example above). This section is worth 15 points.
III. Research Methods: Sampling Method (Representative), Concepts, Variable(s) for each Concept,
Indicator(s) for each variable, and Data Sheet Entries. These elements should be described in full detail
in separate paragraphs, and each should be in separate paragraphs with headings.
o Representative Sampling: What is your population and how did you choose a sample to
represent it? What is N, and what is your n?
Remember, the population is the entire group of items, material, or media to which
you are generalizing. For instance, if you are examining gender stereotypes in
children’s t-shirts (7-8 years old) on Target’s website, your population would be all
of the children’s t-shirts (7-8 years old) on Target’s website. The N is the number in
The sample is the group of t-shirts you selected randomly from the population of all
of the t-shirts (7-8 years old) on Target’s website. You must select these randomly
and tell me HOW you selected these randomly. The group you selected randomly is
the sample. The n is the number of t-shirts in the sample.
Concepts: What are the concepts that you are examining? List and explain them in detail.
For example, if you are examining gender and children’s clothing, the concept you
are examining is likely “sexism,” or “gender roles,” or “gender stereotypes.”
Operationalization of Variables: List your variables and make it explicit/clear which concept they
represent. Once you list your variables, then state exactly HOW you will measure them
(operationalization). Then, describe the coding scheme you will use to collect your data.
Data Sheet Entries: State and describe in detail what each row and column will represent in your
data sheet. DO NOT include your actual data sheet(s) in this section. The actual data sheet(s) will go
at the end of the paper.
Note that you should use a separate data table for each research question you have. This section
should be at least 1.5 pages (double-spaced) long and is worth 30 points.
IV. Findings: Your Findings section should include at least two paragraphs:
1. The first paragraph will state your findings. In this paragraph, you will state what you have recorded
on your data table(s).
2. The following paragraph(s) will include your answer to these questions:
Did you find any signs or manifestations of inequality? What are they? Give at least 5 examples of what
you found. Why do you consider these examples of inequality?
Did you find examples of equality? If you found examples of equality in your research, give at least 5
examples of equal representations. Why do you consider these examples of equality?
This section should be at least 1.5 pages long and is worth 20 points.
V. Discussion and Conclusion: The fifth section of the paper is the Discussion and Conclusion section. In
this section, you will discuss what you found through your research, and what it means for society and
for individuals. You will state AND interpret and explain your findings. What do your findings say about
society’s perceptions and ideologies (ideas) related to your topic/issue? You MAY write in first person in
this section of the paper.
In this section, you will discuss the implications of your findings. Discuss at least 3 of these in these:
1. What do your findings say about society’s perceptions and ideologies related to your
topic/issue? Give 5 examples from your research, and explain what this kind of manifestation represents
about our culture’s ideas and beliefs.
2. How are individuals of different groups affected by this issue, based on what you found in your
study? How is society affected by this issue and how people or issues are represented in our society,
based on your research findings?
3. What are three examples of effects of this issue that you have noticed in your everyday life?
Do you think that people of different generations are affected differently by this issue/topic, and how
media/society represents your issue? Why, or why not?
4. Do you think that if you did this research 20 years ago, you would have similar findings? Why,
or why not? What about 50 years ago? What about 50 years in the future?
5. How do you feel about what you found? Are you hopeful, complacent, disturbed, frustrated,
happy? Why? If things were to change, how might this happen? Who might be responsible for initiating
change? Is widespread change possible? Do you want to see changes? Why, or why not?
This section should be at least 1.5 pages long and is worth 15 points.
Data Collection Guidelines:
Data Collection: For this project, you will conduct a content analysis. As discussed in the textbook, a
content analysis involves you collecting your own data, typically from some form of media or other
cultural product. You will not talk to/interview or survey any people for this project. People are not
your source of data!!
You will collect data using a data collection sheet. This completed data collection sheet is a very
important part of your study and paper; you must attach it to the draft and the final paper. If you fail to
attach the correctly formatted data collection sheet or the data table(s) to the draft or final paper,
you will lose 10 points.
You must cite and reference your paper using ASA format. There is ASA formatting help posted in
Canvas in the Content Analysis module. If you fail to provide any in-text citations, you will lose 20 points
from your paper grade.
You must include a reference page, which must be in ASA format. This page will include the reference
for the citations in your paper. This section is worth 5 points.
Formatting of the Paper:
This paper must be double-spaced, using 10-point or 12-point font. The font must be a “normal” font,
such as Times New Roman or Calibri. You must use normal margins, with headings for each section
The body of this paper should be at least 6 pages long, but no longer than 8 pages long (double-spaced).
This page requirement does not include the cover page, reference page, or the data sheet.
Do not include any images in the paper. If you use improper margins, improper spacing, improper fonts,
or any other inappropriate components, you will lose points from your paper grade.
You should also include page numbers at the bottom right of each page.
General Academic Paper Rules:
General Rules for any college-level paper, including this one:
Do not use contractions, first or second person (except for in the Discussion and Conclusion),
“colloquial language,” questions, or idioms.
Make sure you write complete sentences and make sure that you do not have any grammatical,
spelling, or punctuation mistakes
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